D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections and University Archives

Asheville City Plan, 1922

John Nolen (1869-1937)

Title Asheville City Plan, 1922
  Asheville City Plan, MCMXXII
Identifier http://toto.lib.unca.edu/findingaids/books/booklets/nolen/default_nolen1.htm
Creator John Nolen
Alt. Creator Asheville City Planning Commission
Subject Keyword John Nolen ; Asheville, NC ; city planning ; roads ; housing ; regional planning ; education ; religion ; commerce ; highways ; railroads ; parks ; landscape architecture ;
Subject LCSH
Nolen, John (1869-1937)
City planning -- North Carolina -- Asheville
Asheville (N.C.). City Planning Commission
North Carolina -- Social life and customs -- Pictorial works
Asheville (N.C.) -- History
City planning -- Study and teaching
Community development, Urban
Highway planning
Regional planning
Date 2006-01-10
Publisher Asheville City Planning Commission. 1925 ; [Digital Publisher] D. H. Ramsey Library, Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville , 2006-07-20

Asheville City Planning Commission

Type Source type: text ; illustrations ; digital file
Format Small book. 48 p.  5 folded,  colored maps inserted in book.
Source SpecColl  NA9127.A8 N6 1925 
Language EN=English
Relation E.M. Ball Photographic Collection, UNCA ; Edgar M. Lyda Collection, UNCA ; Guide to the John Nolen Pamphlet Collection, Collection Number: 6337, Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library, see: Asheville, NC: Field Survey Book, by John Nolen, Un-numbered ; Nolen family.  Papers of the Nolen-Schatte family, 1886-1990 (inclusive), 1886 (bulk): A Finding Aid, [MC 511], Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Harvard University. 
Coverage 1922 ; Asheville, North Carolina
Rights Any display, publication or public use must credit D. H. Ramsey Library, Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville.
Copyright retained by the authors of certain items in the collection, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law.
Donor Unknown
Description A 48 page book with five folding maps inserted in the text.  Includes description of demography, economics, city parks, transportation, and other relevant factual details about the city of Asheville.  John Nolen provides a diagram of the city as a series of circular and self-contained units that often overlap. Each unit is designed to provide basic educational facilities, parks, churches, business districts, and other fundamental support services. An intricate system of transportation features connects the units of the city with one another and utilize many of the existing thoroughfares. The author provides a rationale for the organization of his plan.
Acquisition Unknown
Citation Asheville City Plan1922 D. H. Ramsey Library, Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville 28804
Processed by Special Collections staff,  2004
Last update 2006-01-10
Biography John Nolen (1869-1937)

Nolen was born June 14, 1869 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He attended Girard College and upon graduation in 1884, he worked on the Girard Estate for six years where he earned sufficient money to attend the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. He received his Ph.B in 1893 and worked for a short time as superintendent of Onteora Park, in the Catskill Mountains. He worked as the Secretary of the American Society for the Extension of University Teaching from 1893 to 1903 and following that he was accepted into the School of Landscape Architecture  at Harvard where he received his A.M. in 1905. With his new credentials he entered a thirty-year career that included planning and/or development projects in some fifty cities in the United States. Some of the more notable cities are Kingsport, Tennessee, San Diego, California, Mariemont, Ohio, and Roanoke, Virginia, and Asheville and Charlotte, North Carolina. He was recognized as a leader in his field and served as the president of the American City Planning, and the International Federation for Housing and Town Planning and was also elected in 1927 as president of the National Conference on City Planning. In England he was recognized as an honorary member of the Town Planning Institute of England.

Nolen married Barbara Schatt (1872-1954) on April 22, 1896 and they had  four children. John "Jack" Nolen, Jr., the oldest of the children, also worked in city planning and served as the Director of the National Capital Planning Commission in Washington, D.C. John Nolen died of cancer on February 18, 1937 at the early age of sixty-eight.

p.1-48 and  maps CONTENTS of  ENTIRE PLAN by page


p.5 A PRESENTATION By the City Commissioners nolen_page005.jpg (229354 bytes)
p.6 As the Plan Affects THE DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE nolen_page006.jpg (233697 bytes)
p.7 As the Plan Affects THE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS nolen_page007.jpg (207062 bytes)
p.8 As the Plan Affects THE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC SAFETY nolen_page008.jpg (205699 bytes)
p.9 A REVIEW OF PROGRESS of the City Plan to Date nolen_page009.jpg (282015 bytes)
  p.10 Asheville stands today on threshold of new state in its evolution.

Asheville can be hub for National Western North Carolina Playground

nolen_page010.jpg (209951 bytes)
  p.11 City Plan is result of extensive survey of existing conditions.

Survey covers Ashville's History, Physical Aspects, Statistics, Streets, Transportation Business and Industry, Housing, Health, Recreation, Attractions and Public Utilities.

nolen_page011.jpg (181865 bytes)
  p.12 Asheville dates history from 1793.

John Burton is City's Founder.

Is Named for Samuel Ashe.

nolen_page012.jpg (246180 bytes)
  p.13 First Railroad in 1881.

The Automobile is changing the radius of City life.

Asheville needs better Street System, more Parks, a Civic Center.

Western North Carolina is Heart of Southern Appalachian Forest Reserve.

nolen_page013.jpg (252297 bytes)
  p.14 City is well known as Health and Pleasure Resort

Cooperation of Individuals and Public Agencies can give Asheville benefits of being both Pleasure and Health Resort.

Asheville is Center of Southern Water Power Ares; of Mineral and Forest Resources of South.

nolen_page014.jpg (279754 bytes)
  p.15 Many classes of building material are found here.

2000.000 horse power of water power within 40 miles of City still undeveloped.

Asheville has wealth of resources.

Hotels have international fame.

Golf Clubs have important place in modern resort.

nolen_page015.jpg (252999 bytes)
  p.16 Asheville has very rough topography.

City's Average Elevation is 2,250 feet.

Mountain Section is on High Plateau.

Is Drained by French Broad River.

nolen_page016.jpg (241771 bytes)
  p.17 French Broad divides City into two distinct localities.

Railroad follows the valley route.

Swannanoa Valley should be developed for Park purposes to prevent depreciation of high-class residential property.

nolen_page017.jpg (246288 bytes)
  p.18 City's Valley and Ravine Sections should be under public control.

Normal flow of French Broad is 2 feet on Government Gauge

Asheville's Average Yearly Temperature is 55 degrees.

Climate gives Asheville unique place among Mountain Resorts.

nolen_page018.jpg (233978 bytes)
  p.19 Region is rich in variety of native trees and shrubs.

Asheville country is becoming an apple-growing center for which City is logical distributing point.

Population of 50,000 in 1940 is foreseen.

nolen_page019.jpg (203843 bytes)
  p.20 Decentralization offers remedy for congestion of city life.

Asheville is on Main Lines of Southern Railroad.

Only three grade crossings in City.

Railroads are well located in City but removal of Passenger Station to Biltmore is advocated.

nolen_page020.jpg (244948 bytes)
  p.21 Street Car Routes.

Bus Lines.

Rerouting of certain car lines is proposed to remedy Pack Square congestion.

nolen_page021.jpg (217107 bytes)
  p.22 Asheville's thoroughfares must be located in accordance with grade conditions.

Dixie Highway is Main Trunk Route through City ; Central and Southern National Highways are also important routes.

State Highways are backbone of Asheville's thoroughfare system.

It is necessary that chief traffic arteries be widened, and improved.

nolen_page022.jpg (272219 bytes)
  p.23 New Streets are Suggested. nolen_page023.jpg (198440 bytes)
  p.24 Biltmore and Patton Aves., Broadway and Haywood Road to be widened.

Many other Streets should be widened.

Asheville Street widths are too narrow, but widenings proposed must be conservative.

Adoption of Standard Street Section makes uniformity possible.

nolen_page024.jpg (248704 bytes)
  p.25 Standard Sections for Streets are described.

New bridge at foot of Hanover Street is suggested.

nolen_page025.jpg (229020 bytes)
  p.26 New Street program will greatly improve auto-parking problem.

Traffic Squares at Street intersections will remedy traffic problem.

Where Traffic Squares will be located.

nolen_page026.jpg (219149 bytes)
  p.27 Local center is suggested for Broadway at Chestnut and East Streets.

Southside Plaza to be formed at the intersection of Biltmore and Southside Avenues.

nolen_page027.jpg (220200 bytes)
  p.28 The turn to Clingman Avenue will be made at the proposed Patton Square.

A Subway under Jefferson Drive will provide a direct connection from Pack Square to West Asheville.

The proposed Civic Center, on the north side of College Street between Spruce and Oak, will be site for Post Office, Library and Community Building.

nolen_page028.jpg (243821 bytes)
  p.29 Would give Asheville beautiful community center.

Pack Square is Geographical Center of City.

Development at Eastern End of Square will tie in with Civic Center.

nolen_page029.jpg (230519 bytes)
p.30 A FEW ASHEVILLE FACTS AND A FINANCIAL STATEMENT [LEFT] nolen_page030.jpg (258582 bytes)
p. 30-31 A FEW ASHEVILLE FACTS AND A FINANCIAL STATEMENT [TOTAL] nolen_page030_031.jpg (234575 bytes)
p.31 A FEW ASHEVILLE FACTS AND A FINANCIAL STATEMENT [RIGHT] nolen_page031.jpg (250855 bytes)
  p.32 Bus line station to be created near Marjorie and Spruce Streets.

Farmer's Exchange at Market and Spruce Streets.

Life of West Asheville centers at Waynesville Avenue and Haywood Road.

Propose Circle at Haywood Road and Hanover Street for West Asheville Community Center.

nolen_page032.jpg (267325 bytes)
  p.33 Site for City Market proposed for Market Street.

City Incinerator has good location.,

nolen_page033.jpg (207655 bytes)
  p.34 Incinerator burned 10,355 loads of trash in 1920.

Montford and Aston Parks are inadequate for City.

Proposed Park System will utilize land which might otherwise become undesirable. Will follow banks of French Broad and Swannanoa Rivers, and include mountainside on East of City.

nolen_page034.jpg (255149 bytes)
  p.35 Local Parks, scattered throughout City, will serve local neighborhoods.

Parked Drives are part of the plan.

Need for auto drives in City is pointed out.

National beauty spots should be preserved and made easily accessible.

nolen_page035.jpg (236522 bytes)
  p.36 Parks and Playgrounds, shown on new plan, are named.

Biltmore Field to be Asheville's play center.

nolen_page036.jpg (189732 bytes)
  p.37 Area for "Country Park" is selected near Northern City boundary.

Small Parks in Residential Sections will provide rest places and add to civic beauty.

nolen_page037.jpg (216154 bytes)
  p.38 Playgrounds are also provided for West Asheville, the intersection of Biltmore Ave. and Valley Street, and Southside Ave., at Beech Street.

Enlarged school grounds will serve as athletic and recreation centers.

Four acres is needed for school play ground property.

Every school pupil needs one hundred square feet of play space.

High School playground should be enlarged.

nolen_page038.jpg (265425 bytes)
  p.39 Plan should favor private schools.

Opening up of Battery Park Hill is great move for City.

nolen_page039.jpg (216235 bytes)
  p.40 Battery Park Hill may become tourist center for section.

Well laid-our subdivisions will add much to City's beauty.

Movement to Suburbs is foreseen.

nolen_page040.jpg (247887 bytes)
  p.41 Automobile is making country accessible.

Store centers are best developed under zone plan.

Apartment houses should be grouped together to protect single family houses.

nolen_page041.jpg (220897 bytes)
  p.42 Certain class of factory development is encouraged.

Sanitariums will not conflict with other property under zone plan.

Biltmore village is fine example of town planning.

nolen_page042.jpg (230264 bytes)
  p.43 Country location of cemeteries is advocated.

Definite section of City is suggested for activities of colored population.

nolen_page043.jpg (217215 bytes)
  p.44 Zone plan designates Business, Industrial, Residential and Public Districts.

Patton and Biltmore intersection is main business center.

Zoning study will be guide for final ordinance.

nolen_page044.jpg (245265 bytes)
  p.45 Zone plan will protect property from encroachment.

Zoning is, however, no panacea for short-sighted city building.

Keynote of Asheville zoning ordinance should be simplicity.

English zoning plans worth copying.

nolen_page045.jpg (233038 bytes)
  p.46 No need here for complicated zoning law.

Single and two family homes alone allowed in Residence Districts.

Apartments should go in Business District.

nolen_page046.jpg (232496 bytes)
  p.47 Size restrictions for buildings are advocated.

Disposition of country surrounding city is vitally important.

Main objectives of plan are named in summary.

Matters which require early consideration are given.

Anticipate the needs.

nolen_page047.jpg (212832 bytes)
  p.48 [Summary]

The civic center, and Pack Square Extension.

Improve traffic conditions.

Widen the streets.

Establish a park system.

Battery Park Hill.

Plan for negro life.

Safeguard property interests.

nolen_page048.jpg (372818 bytes)
1 MAP of Existing Conditions as a basis for City Planning

        nolen_pmap01_left.jpg (459349 bytes)   nolen_pmap01_right.jpg (643067 bytes)

  nolen_pmap01_whole.jpg (610051 bytes)
2 MAP of City Planning Proposals as a basis for Development: GENERAL PLAN

         nolen_pmap02_left.jpg (589562 bytes)   nolen_pmap02_right.jpg (749228 bytes)

    nolen_pmap02_whole.jpg (234255 bytes)
3 MAP of City Planning Proposals as a basis for Development: PARK SYSTEM

         nolen_pmap03_left.jpg (295789 bytes)   nolen_pmap03_right.jpg (662680 bytes)

 nolen_pmap03_whole.jpg (690864 bytes)
4 MAP of City Planning Proposals as a basis for Development: MAIN THOROUGHFARES

          nolen_pmap04_left.jpg (546002 bytes)   nolen_pmap04_right.jpg (390614 bytes)   

  nolen_pmap04_whole.jpg (751733 bytes)


5 MAP of City Planning Proposals as a basis for Development: ZONE STUDY

       nolen_pmap05_left.jpg (1118679 bytes)   nolen_pmap05_right.jpg (775449 bytes)

  nolen_pmap_05_whole.jpg (574173 bytes)