D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections and University Archives

Asheville and Buncombe County
by Forster A. Sondley, LL.D

Genesis of Buncombe County
by the Hon. Theodore F. Davidson

 F264.A8 S6 1922

Title Asheville and Buncombe County
Alt.Title Asheville and Buncombe County and Genesis of Buncombe County
Identifier http://toto.lib.unca.edu/findingaids/books/sondley_f_a/sondley_f.a.htm
Creator F.A. Sondley
Alt. Creator Theodore Davidson
Alt. Creator Asheville Citizen
Subject Keyword Forster Alexander Sondley ; Theodore F. Davidson ; Asheville, NC ; Asheville incorporated ; incorporation ;  John Jarrett ; Samuel Chunn ; William Welch ; George Swain ; Zebulon Baird ; N. Blackstock ; R. B. Johnston ;  Edmund Sams ; Sams's Ferry ;  Jarrett's Ferry ; Smith's Bridge ; bridges ; Edmund Sams ; Benoni Sams ; William Gudger, Sr. ; James Gudger ; James M. Smith ; Iron Bridge ; Samuel Chunn ; Chunn's Tanyard ; Chunn's Cove ;A. B. Chunn ;William Welsh ; George Swain ; Joel Lane ; General Joseph Lane ;  David L. Swain ; wagons ; Post-road  ; city planning ; roads ; housing ; regional planning ; city planning ; education ; religion ; commerce ; highways ; railroads ; parks ; landscape architecture ; history ; Buncombe County ; Cherokee Indians ; language ; rivers ; mountains ; Ari Marsson ; Lost Colony ; Welsh ;  Madoc ; Tuscaroras ; Morgan Jones ; Christopher  Columbus ; Hernando De Soto ; Hickory Nut Gap ; Pedro Menendez de Aviles ; Asheville Citizen ; Asheville Citizen-Times ; lawyers ; Francis Asbury ; Methodists ; Presbyterians ; De Soto ; William Holland Thomas ; education ; Newton Academy ; Newton Cemetery ; Thomas Clingman ; Christian Reid ; courthouses ; John P. Arthur ; John Patton ; John Davidson ; Thomas Davidson ;  John Dillard ; Reuben Wood ; Superior Court of District of Morgan ; Thomas Foster ; Thomas Foster, Sr. ; Zebulon and Bedent Baird  ; Zebulon Baird ;  Stage-coach ; John Street ; Joseph Hughey ; James Hughey ; John Gray Blount  ; John Craig ; Henry West ;  ;  Sheriff ; William Forster, Sr. ; Ephraim Drake Harris ; Samuel Lusk ; James Brittain ; Colonel William Davidson ;  General William Davidson ; Samuel Davidson ; Major William Davidson ; Daniel Smith ; Swannanoa Settlement ; Gabriel Ragsdale ; William Brittain ; earthquakes ; lakes ; floods ; elk ; bison ; bear ;
Subject LCSH
Sondley, Forster Alexander
Davidson, Theodore
City planning -- North Carolina -- Asheville
North Carolina -- Social life and customs -- Pictorial works
Asheville (N.C.) -- History
Community development, Urban
Buncombe County (N.C.) -- History


Date original 1921 ;
Date digital 2008-11-26
Publisher Asheville Citizen,1922 ; [Digital Publisher] D.H. Ramsey Library, Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville , 2008-11-26. Originally written for a special edition of the Asheville Citizen, which appeared in November, 1921.


Type Source type: text ; illustrations ; digital file
Format Small book. 4 p. 1.,[11]-200 p. incl. front., illus., plans, facsims. 22cm ;
Source SpecColl   F264.A8 S6 1922
Language English
Relation E.M. Ball Photographic Collection, UNCA ; Edgar M. Lyda Collection, UNCA ; Guide to the John Nolen Pamphlet Collection, Collection Number: 6337, Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library, see: Asheville, NC: Field Survey Book, by John Nolen, Un-numbered ; Nolen family, Papers of the Nolen-Schatte family, 1886-1990 (inclusive), 1886-1954 (bulk): A Finding Aid, [MC 511], Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Harvard University. 
Coverage temporal 1922 ;
Coverage spatial Asheville, North Carolina
Rights Any display, publication or public use must credit D. H. Ramsey Library, Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville.
Copyright retained by the authors of certain items in the collection, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law.
Donor Unknown
Description A 200 page book  published at the request of the The Asheville Citizen newspaper in 1922 for the citizens of the city and county. The two historical articles first appeared in The Citizen when a special edition of the newspaper was produced to celebrate the move of the newspaper into their new headquarters at No. 25 Haywood Street. The combined articles have been revised by both authors and included in one volume.

 The first article, written by F.A. Sondley details the history of Asheville and supplements this history with details about the county and the region.  The second article written by the Honorable Theodore Davidson, describes the development of Buncombe County and the relationship of the county with the state of North Carolina. The book contains illustrations of Asheville and the surrounding area of Buncombe County and western North Carolina. The historical accounts include descriptions of the city and county and the history, demography, economics, transportation, and other relevant factual details.  Both authors pull heavily from prior historical sources and "... attempt to provide :the most important events in the story of Asheville and adjoining regions with enough explanation  and illustration to enable a reader to understand, in some measure at least, the people who have made that [Asheville and Buncombe County] story a reality."  The Asheville Citizen noted that they were "glad to have the opportunity of performing what it believes is a great public service in handing them down for future generations."

It is in that spirit that this electronic version is provided.

Acquisition Acquired as part of the George A. Shuford Collection.
Citation Sondley, Forster A. Asheville and Buncombe County, D. H. Ramsey Library, Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville 28804
Processed by Special Collections staff,  2004
Last update 2006-01-10
Biography Forster A. Sondley
Biography Theodore F. Davidson
Cover sond001 Cover:


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Bookplate sond002 Bookplate:

"Ex Libris, George Shuford"

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Statement sond003 STATEMENT

IN November of last year The Asheville Citizen moved into its new and permanent home at No. 25 Haywood Street. In celebration of that event The Citizen published a special edition, in which appeared two most interesting and highly instructive articles on the history of Western North Carolina and of Buncombe County, one prepared by Dr. F. A. Sondley, and the other by General Theodore F. Davidson.

These two articles attracted widespread attention as they both narrated incidents and facts, many of which had never before been printed, and many of The Citizen's readers urged that these two articles be reprinted in pamphlet form, so as to be more easily read and preserved for the future.

At our request Dr. Sondley and General Davidson have both revised those two articles and have brought them up to date, and, in response to this request, The Citizen has had them printed and bound in this little volume.

The Citizen believes that the public will be deeply interested in the facts set forth in this little volume, and is glad to have the opportunity of performing what it believes is a great public service in handing them down for future generations.

The expense of securing the illustrations and the printing of this volume is considerably more than the management anticipated, and, in order to help defray the cost of the same, we are making a nominal charge for each book to help defray this expense.

The Citizen is under deep obligations to Dr. Sondley and General Davidson for their arduous labors in compiling the facts set forth herein. They have striven earnestly and faithfully to get together, in an interesting and succinct manner, without remuneration, the facts compiled, and are entitled to the thanks and appreciation of a grateful public.

The Citizen Company. February 27, 1922.

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Frontis sond004 Frontis -

"Mt. Mitchell Above the Clouds."  

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Title Page sond005 Title page:

A.F [F.A.]. Sondly, LL.D
Hon. Theodore F. Davidson
The Citizen Company

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Copyright, 1922, by
F. A. Sondley, LL.D

The Inland Press
Asheville, N.C.

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Dedication sond007

This little work is dedicated to
who has ever exerted himself for the preservation of Buncombe's history and in so doing has made that county his everlasting debtor.

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THIS is intended to be a sketch of the history   of   Asheville   and   Buncombe County.   It is difficult to tell in writing a local history where to stop.   There is always more to be said.   All facts are material; but all facts are not equally well known. Public records have been followed where available. When they have failed, recourse has been had to tradition; but no tradition has been followed unless, after careful scrutiny, it seems to be true and even then is well attested.  Too great generality renders whatever is written worthless. On the other hand, too much detail is tedious. All history is incomplete. This sketch makes no claim to even approximate completeness. Its aim is to give the most important events in the story of Asheville and adjoining regions with enough explanation and illustration to enable a reader to understand, in some measure at least, the people who have made that story a reality.

F. A. Sondley.

Finis Viae,
December 31, 1921.

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_0011 Chapter I - Early Exploration

Early Discoveries of America—Norwegians and Vinland—Irish and Land of the White Men or Great Ireland or Huitramannaland—Ari Marsson—North Carolina's first Lost Colony—North Carolina second Lost Colony—Welsh and Madoc—Tuscaroras—Morgan Jones—North Carolina's third Lost Colony—Columbus—Hernando De Soto—Hickorynut Gap—Pedro Menendez de Aviles

—Saint Helena and San Felipe—Juan Pardo—Xualla or Juada or Joara or Sara or Suala—Otapales and Olagatanos—Yupaha, Aixacan, Chiquola, Chisca, Apalatci, Onagatano—La Grand Copal, Florida—New France, Louisiane, Apalche, Apalache—Virginia, Western North Carolina—Huguenots—Rene G. Landonniere—French in Florida—"Mountaines of Apalatcy"—Silver and Gold and "Redde Copper"—Francis Yardly—Spaniards—Haynokes or Enos—John Lederer—Sir William Berkley—Ancient Mining in Western North Carolina— Lincoln County—Cherokee County—Reed Mine—North Carolina Gold—John and Sebastian Cabot—Sir Walter Raleigh—Virginia—Amidas anr Barlow— Ralph Lane—Raleigh's Lost Colony—Old North State—Indian Corn, Sassafras, Irish Potatoes, Tobacco—First English Settlement in America, first English Gold Mine in America, Virginia Dare, first Battle for Independence at Alamance—Stamp Act in North Carolina—Tryon—John Ashe—Waddell— Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence—Halifax Provincial Congress— Secession in North Carolina—Henry Wyatt—Battle of Big Bethel—William Henry Foote's tribute to Scotch-Irish of North Carolina—George Bancroft's tribute to North Carolina—Battle of Kings Mountain—White Occupation to Revolution—Cherokees—-Indian Relics—Site of Asheville old Battleground 

page 25

Chapter II - Indian Names, Mountains

French Broad River—Indian Names for French Broad—Tocheste, Pse-lico, Agiqua, Tocheesstee, Zillicoah, Un-takiyastiyi—"French"—Origin of Name of French Broad—Swannanoa River—Origin of Name of Swannanoa—Shaw-anoes — Savannah, Swanee, Suanee— Cumberland River — "Chouanou" — Sewanee—Shawanoes on Swannanoa—Davidson's River—Mills River—Little River—Muddy Creek—Clear Creek—Cane Creek—Catawba Grape—William Camp—Hominy Creek—Newfound Creek—Turkey Creek—Sandymush Creek—Cripple Creek, Big Branch, Town Branch, Gash's Creek—Nathan Smith's Creek, Glenn's Creek—Asheville Gold—Beaverdam Creek—John Davis's Branch—Reems Creek—Flat Creek—Ivy River—Laurel River—Spring Creek—Warm Springs, Hot Springs, Discovery—Ross's Creek, Chunn's Cove— Haw Creek, Whitson's Creek, "T. T. Patton's Mill Creek"—Grassy Branch-Bull Creek—Bee Tree Creek—South Fork of Swannanoa River, Flat Creek— Asheville Plateau—Blue Ridge—Appalachian or Alleghany Mountains— Origins of Names Appalachian and Alleghany—Pisgah—Busby—Bearwallow—Bald Top—Sugar Loaf—Pilot—Point Lookout—Craggy—Black Mountain— Lane's Pinnacle—Mine Hole Gap—Forges on Hominy Creek and Reems Creek—Beaucatcher—Judge Avery—Elks, last killed in North Carolina—Elk Mountain—Last.Panthers in North Carolina—Deer—Bears—Lynxes—Gooch's Peak—Tryon's Line—Tryon Mountain—City of Tryon—French Broad, Pse-li-co, Tocheste, Agiqua, Tocheeosstee, Zillicoah, Untakiyastiki, Zeehleeka, Esseewah—Pisgah, Warwasseeta, Elseetoss—Balk Mountain, Sokassa—Sugar-

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12    Contents

loaf Mountain, Salola—Broad River, Esseedaw, Craggy Mountain, Sunnalee_ Black Mountain, Seencyahs—Cold Mountain, Osteenoah—Balsam Mountains, Judykullas — Smoky Mountains, Chesseetoahs — Newfound Mountains, Chewassee—Cisco

page 37

Chapter III -Lake, Indians

Lake—Mountain Island—Former course of French Broad River—Ushery— Lederer—De Soto—De Soto in North Carolina—Cofachiqui—Xuala or Chouala—Suali, Suara, Suala, Cheraw, Sara—Guatule or Gauchule—Discovery of the Mississippi River—Rickohocans

page 47

Chapter IV - Cherokee Indians

John Lederer--Sara or Suala—James Needham and Gabriel Arthur—Abraham Wood—Tomahitan Indians, Cherokees—Sitteree—Death of Needham—First Visit of English to Cherokees—John Stuart and Alexander Cameron—Georgia Expedition against Cherokees—Colonel William Christian Expediton against Cherokees—General Griffith Rutherford Expedition against Cherokees— Rutherford's Route—Swannanoa Gap—War Ford of French Broad—Hominy Creek—Pigeon River—Richland Creek—Tuckaseigee River—Cowee Mountain—Skirmish with Indians—Tennessee River—Fight with Indians—Valley Towns—Middle Towns—Indian towns of Watauga, Estotoa and Ellojay Destroyed—Williamson's Expedition against Cherokees—Colonel William-son's Route—Catawbas— Colonel Williamson's fight with Indians—William-son joins Rutherford—Result of Rutherford Expedition—Rutherford's Return—"Rutherford's Trace"—James Hall—Captain Charles Folk's Diary— Nuckessey Town—Nowee—Hall's Sermon—Rutherford's Life—General William Davidson—Captains William Moore and Harden's Expedition against the Cherokees—Moore's Route—Moore and Harden destroy Indian town on Tuckaseigee—Tracking, killing and scalping Indians—Captures— Earthquake—"Vandue" of prisoners and plunder—Moore's Report—Balsam Mountains—Indian poisoned at Sulphur Spring on Hominy Creek—Colonel John Sevier's Expedition against Cherokees in 1781, up Cane Creek and across Ivy and Swannanoa to Tuckasejah and headwaters of Little Tennessee

—Expedition of Tennesseeans against Cherokees to Coosawatee in 1789— Indians at Warm Springs in 1793—Blockhouses on French Broad at Hough's, Burnt Canebrake, Painted Rock and Warm Springs—Buncombe Scout to Big Laurel—Sevier's Expedition against Cherokees up French Broad River and up Newfound Creek and back down Hominy—Settlers before Revolution on Catawba River—Swannanoa valley—Samuel Davidson settles on Christian Creek and is killed by Cherokees—Escape of wife and child—Expedition from Old Fort to avenge his death—Fight with Cherokees from Cheesborough Place on Swannanoa River to mouth of that river in Canebrake—White camp— Hunters on North Fork of Swannanoa—John S. Rice, John Rice, David Nelson, William Rhodes—"Swannanoa Settlement" on Swannanoa at mouth of Bee Tree Creek—Alexanders, Davidsons—First Field cleared in Buncombe—Bull Mountain—Settlements on Reems and Flat Creeks, and on French Broad, and on Hominy Creek—Treaty of Long Island of Holston— Arrangements for treaty with Cherokees of Middle Towns and Valley Towns —North Carolina Act of 1783

page 51

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Chapter V - Buncombe County

Swannanoa River dividing line between Burke and Rutherford Counties—Joseph McDowell's Line—Grant to Captain William Moore who put negroes on land—Buncombe County formed from Burke and Rutherford Counties—Named for Colonel Edward Buncombe—Genealogy of Buncombe County—Clarendon County—New Hanover County—Bladen County—Anson County—Rowan County—Burke County—Mecklenburg County—Tryon County—Lincoln County—Rutherford County—David Vance and Colonel William Davidson— Creation of Buncombe County—Organization of Buncombe County—First place of Sitting of County Court—"Talking for Buncombe"—Felix Walker— Dr. R. B. Vance—James Graham—S. P. Carson—Vance-Carson duel—David5 Crockett—Indian Empire—Christian Priber

page 32

Chapter VI - Asheville

Town of Asheville—John Burton—Grants for Asheville—Town laid out— Named Morristown—Plan of Town—Formation of Buncombe County—Location of county town—Called Morristown—Places considered for site of town— Steam-saw-mill Place—William Morrison—Origin of Name of Morristown— Indian Graves—Big Branch—Asheville Public Square—Grants of Charles II. to Lords Proprietors—Conveyances to George II.—John Carteret, Earl of Granville—Granville Land—Granville Suit—John Carteret, Earl of Granville—Act establishing Buncombe County—Commissioners to locate County town—Election of first County officers—John Davidson—Thomas Davidson— John Dillard—Reuben Wood—Superior Court of District of Morgan—Jurors first from Buncombe—Sale of town lots—Thomas Foster—Thomas Foster, Sr.—Zebulon and Bedent Baird—Zebulon Baird—First wagon in Buncombe— Stage-coach—Baird Suit—John Street—Joseph Hughey—James Hughey—John Gray Blount Tax Sale—John Craig—Henry West—First Sheriff—First Treasurer—William Forster, Sr.—Ephraim Drake Harris—Samuel Lusk— James Brittain—Colonel William Davidson—Buncombe's first State Senator— General William Davidson—Samuel Davidson—Major William Davidson— Daniel Smith—Swannanoa Settlement—Gabriel Ragsdale and William Brittain, first members of House of Commons from Buncombe—Colonel John Patton—Opened first County Court—First County Surveyor—Patton's Bridge—Samuel Ashe—Asheville named for him—Change of Morristown to Asheville—Bayard v. Singleton—Colonel David Vance—Buncombe County Court's first clerk—Governor Z. B. Vance—General R. B. Vance—Colonel A. T. Davidson—Cherokees plan attack in 1793 on Swannanoa settlements— Colonel Doherty and Colonel McFarland's invasion of Cherokee country from Tennessee in 1793—Asheville saved from Cherokees

page 69

Chapter VII - Asheville Incorporation, Roads

Asheville incorporated—Act of incorporation—John Jarrett—Samuel Chunn— William Welch—George Swain—Zebulon Baird—Plan of Asheville and additions—N. Blackstock—R. B. Johnston—John Jarrett—Edmund Sams—First Ferry over French Broad, Sams's Ferry, later Jarrett's Ferry—Smith's Bridge—Concrete Bridge—Edmund Sams—Buncombe's first Coroner—Benoni Sams—William Gudger, Sr.—James Gudger—James M. Smith—First white child born west of Blue Ridge in North Carolina—Iron Bridge—Samuel Chunn-—Chunn's Tanyard—Chunn's Cove—A. B. Chunn—William Welsh-George Swain—Joel Lane, founder of Raleigh—General Joseph Lane— David L. Swain—First wagon in Buncombe—Post-road through Buncombe—

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14 Contents

Asheville distributing point for mails for Georgia, Carolinas, and Tennessee— George Swain postmaster—Hatter-shop—William Coleman—Baccus J. Smith —Grove Park—Early Roads—Indian Annoyances—Road to Benjamin David-son's Creek—Road over Reems Creek—Road "from Buncombe Courthouse to the Bull Mountain Road near Robt. Love's"—Road to Jonathan McPeters's on Hominy—Road from Asheville north—Beaverdam Road—Old Warm Springs Road—Hopewell Turnpike—Jewel Hill Road—Philip Hoodenpile— Road from Buncombe Courthouse to Tennessee—Warm Springs Discovered— Colonel J. Barnett—Saluda Gap and first wagon—Saluda Gap Road—Colonel Earle—Old State Road, Buncombe Road—"Road from Augusta in Georgia to Knoxville"—First wagon from North Carolina to Tennessee

page 92

Chapter VIII - Francis Asbury Visit

Bishop Asbury's Visits to Buncombe and Asheville in 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803, 1805, 1806, 1807, 1808, 1809, 1810, 1812, 1813—Killian's—Side-fords— Captain Thomas Foster—Francis Asbury—Asbury's Journals—States owning back-country at close of Revolution—South Carolina's cession to United States-—Georgia's cession—United States cession to Georgia—Georgia's Walton County—Location of North Carolina's southern boundary next to '"Georgia—35° Parallel of Latitude—Controversy between North Carolina and Georgia—"Georgia War"

page 106

Chapter IX Courts, Lawyers

Buncombe Turnpike—Travel—Asheville and Greenville Plank Road—Thomas Foster's Bridge and Road—-Hogs, cattle, horses, droves from Tennessee and Kentucky—John Patton's Road—Biltmore Concrete Bridge—Asheville as a resort for seekers of health and pleasure from South Carolina—Court at Colonel William Davidson's home—Buncombe's first Courthouse, second Courthouse—Buncombe's Jail in 1802—Asheville's Public Square—Commissioners to buy land for Public Square—Deeds for Public Square—Commissioners, Samuel Murray, senr., Thomas Foster, Jacob Byler, Thomas Love, and James Brittain—Buncombe's third Courthouse, 1825-1833—N. W. Woodfin—Buncombe's fourth Courthouse, destroyed in 1865—Buncombe's fifth Courthouse—Buncombe's sixth Courthouse—G. W. Pack—Buncombe's seventh Courthouse—Buncombe's third Jail—Buncombe's fourth Jail—Buncombe's fifth Jail—Buncombe's first Jail—Sale by County of part of Public Square—Lawyers—Reuben Wood, Buncombe's first Solicitor—Waighstill Avery, North Carolina's first Attorney General—First motion in court— Wallace Alexander—Joseph McDowell—James Holland—Joseph Spencer— Bennett Smith—Robert Williamson—Robert Henry—Sulphur Springs—Last of the Heroes of Kings Mountain—Deaver's Springs—John P. Arthur, History of Western North Carolina, History of Watauga County—Thomas Barren— Israel Pickens—Joseph Wilson—Joseph Carson—Robert H. Burton—Henry Harrison—Saunders Donoho—John C. Elliott—Henry Y. Webb—Tench Cox, Jr.—A. R. Ruffin—John Paxton—Abe Collins—Counterfeiters—D. L. Swain—George Newton—Mr. Porter—-Newton Academy—B. F. Perry— Waddy Thompson—M. Patton—R. B. Vance—James W. Patton—University of North Carolina—Z. B. Vance's Life and Character of Hon. D. L. Swain— Judge Seawell—Old Warping Bars, Old Bunk—James R. Dodge—Samuel Hillman—Thomas Dewes—Mrs. Silvers [Frankie Silvers] hung—State Capitol—Joshua Roberts —John H. Christy—Highland Messenger—Asheville Citizen—Thomas Lanier

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Contents 15

Clingman—Clingman-Yancey Duel—Black Mountain—Mitchell's Peak— Highest Land in United States east of Rocky Mountains—Elisha Mitchell— Clingman's Dome—Zebulon B. Vance—Robert Brank Vance—Allen Turner Davidson—Augustus S. Merrimon—John L. Bailey—Aston Park—David Cole-man—Nicholas W. Woodfin—Orchard Grass in Buncombe—Sorghum in Buncombe—Woodfin Street—Marcus Erwin—North Carolina, Secession-page 117

Chapter X - Courts, Court Houses

First Buncombe County Court—James Davidson—David Vance—William Whitson—William Davidson—James Alexander—James Brittain—Philip Hoodenpile—First Action of Court—John Patton—Lambert Clayton— William Brittain—Election of County officers—First Trials—State v. Richard Yardly—W. Avery v. W. Fletcher—Susannah Baker first pauper—First Processioning—William Whitson, processioner—Lineing Branch—First Will probated that of Jonas Gooch—First Will on Record that of Colonel John Patton—First Dower to Denry Gash—"Rev. George Newton" and his "Presbytery" and "Circular" and action of Court thereon—Newton Academy Lottery—Edward Williams sentenced to be whipped—Whipping-post— Capital offences in North Carolina—Cropping—Thomas Hopper's fight with Philip Williams and loss therein of right ear—Certificate of Court about the fight—"Jail, Stocks, and Pillery"—Imprisonment for Debt never in Buncombe—North Carolina Homestead Exemption—Old Debtor laws—Emancipation of Thomas Foster's negro Jerry Smith—Buncombe's first Fairs—Caty Troxell's Deposition—First Suit tried in Morristown (Asheville)—W. Avery v. W. Fletcher, Caveat—North Carolina's first Attorney General—Elections of sheriff, clerk, register of deeds, coroner, entry-taker, surveyor, treasurer, treasurer of public buildings, standard-keeper, made by County Court—First Buncombe Superior Court—Buncombe in Sixth Circuit—Sixth Circuit composed of Surry, Wilkes, Ashe, Buncombe, Rutherford, Burke, Lincoln, Iredell, Cabarrus, Mecklenburg—Buncombe Superior Courts first Monday after fourth Monday in March and September—First Capital Trial that of Randal Delk for Murder—Delk first man hung was executed south of Patton Avenue opposite post-office—Negro named Christopher next executed—Execution of Sneed and Henry—Gallows Field—Negroes shot under sentence of court-martial by Yankees—East and Chestnut Streets—Early service by publication—Early Asheville Ordinances—Zebulon Baird, Daniel Jarrett, William Brittain, Samuel Chunn, William Welshe, George Swain, John Patton— Newton Academy Lottery—Processioning, its origin and history—Mason hung —College Street

page 133

Chapter XI - Manufacturing

Early manufactures in Buncombe—Wool cloth, Flax, Felt hats, Straw hats, Furniture, Ropes, Flour, Lumber, Leather, Shoes, Harness, Saddles, Cow bells, Guns, Pottery and Delftware, Mills—Game—Thomas Foster—Fish—Fish-traps—Gigging—Brandy and Whiskey—Barrooms—Powder—Jacob Byler— Bounty—Iron and Forges—Charles Lane—Forges on Hominy, Reems Creek, and Mills River—Boilston Gold Mine—Forge Mountain—Grist Mills— William Davidson's Mill—John Burton's Mill—James Gudger—Indians hang boys on Battery Park hill—Captain J. M. Gudger—Going to Mill—Handlen killed by Indians—Handlen Mountain—Going to Mill to Old Fort—John Burton—Gap Creek—Patton and Erwin—James Patton—-Andrew Erwin—

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Warm Springs—Valley Street—James W. Patton—Albert T. Summey—Hay-wood County created—Act of creation—Eastern jealousy of West—Columbus County—Part of Buncombe to make Yancey County—Parts of Buncombe to make Henderson County—First Settlers of Buncombe—Presbyterians, Methodists, and Baptists—Preachers—Churches—Piney Grove, Reems Creek, Ashe-ville, and Cane Creek, first Presbyterian Churches—Beaverdam, Salem, Ashe-ville, and Turkey Creek, first Methodist Churches—Asheville, Green River, and Ivy, first Baptist Churches—Newton Academy—William Foster, Jr.— First Church in Asheville—Andrew Erwin, Daniel Smith, John Patton, Ed-mond Sams, James Blakely, William Foster, Senr., Thomas Foster, Jr., William Whitson, William Gudger, Samuel Murray, Joseph Henry, David Vance, William Brittain, George Davidson, John Davidson of Hominy, George Newton — "Cain Creek" — "Robert Patton's Meetinghouse" — Benjamin Hawkins, James Patton, William Gudger, Sr,, Samuel Murray, Sr., John McLane, William McLane, William Moore, Sr., Samuel Davidson—Union Hill Academy—First house at Newton Academy, second, third—George Newton—Dickson Academy—First Church in Asheville, Baptist—Second Baptist Church—Jewish Synagogue—Third Baptist Church in Asheville— David Garren, C. C. Matthews, G. M. Alexander, J. F Sullivan, G. W. Shackelford—First Methodist Church in Asheville—James M. Alexander— William Coleman, Israel Baird, Wilie Jones, J. F. E. Hardy, N. W. Woodfin, James M. Alexander, George W. Jones, James M. Smith, Joshua Roberts— Second Methodist Church—Third Methodist Church—First Presbyterian Church after Newton Academy—James Patton and Samuel Chunn—Charles Moore, James W. Patton, Samuel Chunn, John Hawkins, John B. Whiteside— Next Presbyterian Church—First Episcopal Church in Asheville—James W. Patton—Nicholas W. Woodfin, Lester Chapman, Hatfield Ogden—Second Episcopal Church — Third Episcopal Church — John Alexander — James Alexander—James Mitchell Alexander—Kings Mountain—Musgrove's Mill— Swannanoa Gap—Swannanoa Tunnel—Buncombe Turnpike—"French Broad" —Alexander's Chapel—Montrealla—James M. Smith—Daniel Smith—Ferni-hurst—First Catholic Church in Asheville—-W. D. Rankin—James Gibbons— Second Catholic Church in Asheville—Third Catholic Church—First Female School in Asheville—John Dickson—Elizabeth Blackwell—First Woman Physician in United States—Asheville College for Young Women—Stephen Lee—Colonel Lee's School—Buncombe Illiteracy—Asheville's first newspaper. Highand Messenger—D. R. Me Anally—Joshua Roberts—John H. Christy— W. H. Deaver and The Journal, semi-weekly newspaper—Asheville Citizen first daily newspaper in Asheville

page 141

Chapter XII - Mt. Mitchell, Railroads

John C. Calhoun—Prediction about highest land east of Rocky Mountain and ground of prediction—Elisha Mitchell—T. L. Clingman—Controversy about first measurement of Mitchell's Peak—"Big Tom Wilson"—Mitchell's Falls on Cat Tail Creek of Cane River—Mitchell's Peak, Mitchell's High Peak, Mount Mitchell, Clingman's Peak, Black Dome—Mountain House—Measurements of Mitchell's Peak; Guyot's 6,701, Turner's 6,711, Clingman's 6,941, Mitchell's 6,708 and 6,772—Mitchell's reason for thinking Black Mountain had highest peak east of Rocky Mountains—United States signal station— Charles Glass—Robert Y. Hayne—Asheville a military centre—Camp Patton, Camp Clingman, Camp Jeter, Battery Porter, Beaucatcher, Opposite former

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Oaks Hotel, Montford Avenue, Riverside Drive, and Battle Ground—Battle of Asheville—Tobacco Culture and Sale—S. C. Shelton—Warehouses, corner of North Main and Walnut Streets, South part of Swannanoa Hotel, Valley Street, Lexington Avenue and Walnut Street, Patton Avenue and Bailey Street—Confederate Post-office in Asheville—Confederate Commissary—Confederate Hospital—Confederate armories—Confederate Armory at Asheville on Valley and Eagle Streets—Charter of Asheville Amended in 1840—Philip Brittain, Thomas Foster, and James Gudger—Amendment in 1841—James M. Smith, James W. Patton, N. W. Woodfin, Isaac T. Poor, and James F. E. Hardy—City of Asheville in 1883—Amendments in 1901, and 1905—Ramoth and Woolsey—Montford—Kenilworth—Victoria—West Asheville—Consolidation of Asheville and West Asheville—Asheville first town of Buncombe— Salem—Weaversville, Weaverville—Leicester, Lick Skillet, The Skillet— Western North Carolina Railroad sold to W. J. Best and others—Best— G. W. Vanderbilt—Biltmore Estate—Biltmore—South Biltmore—Black Mountain, Gray Eagle, S. Dougherty—Montreal, Mountain Retreat Association—Arden—Alexander—Swannanoa, Coopers, A. D. Cooper—Hazel—Buena Vista—Fairview—Ridgecrest—Acton—Turnpike—Skyland—Busbee—Candler—Barnardsville—Early Roads to Buncombe—Caesar's Head Road—Saluda Gap Road—Howard's Gap Road—Mills Gap Road—Cooper's Gap Road— Hickorynut Gap Road—Swannanoa Gap Road—Road down Pigeon River— Rabun's Gap Road—Little Tennessee Road—Old Warm Springs Road— Murphy Road—Watauga Road—Bumsville Road—C. S. Featherstone—Paint Rock to Saluda Gap—Colonel Enoch H. Cunningham—Carriages—Stock-drivers—Turkey Droves—Droves of Hogs—Corn and Taverns-

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Chapter XIII

No-Fence Law—Farms—Western Turnpike—Asheville Paving—Crushed Rock— Stone blocks—Bricks—Paving South Main Street—General P. M. B. Young— Road Improvement—Caney, Brown—J. E. Rankin—M. L. Reed—Western North Carolina Railroad first to reach Asheville—First Depot—Second Depot—Passenger Station—Asheville and Spartanburg Railroad—Captain C. M. McLoud—First Telegraph—Henry Station—First Street Cars in Asheville— Mr. Davidson—Southside Avenue—Electric Street Lights—Tower on Public Square—Gas Lamps—Telephones—Sidewalks in Asheville—Cobble-stones, planks, flagstones, bricks, concrete—Tournaments and Baseball Ground and Picknics and Public Speaking—Tournaments—Gander-pulling—Baseball— Town-ball—Public-gatherings place—Merchants of Asheville and Buncombe— Goods hauled from Charleston and Augusta—Teams and wagons—Visits to markets—Morganton, Greenville, and Greeneville—Railroad from Morris-town to Wolf Creek—Marion, Old Fort, Henry Station—First Money in Buncombe—Pounds, Shillings, Spanish Milled Dollars or Mexican Dollars— United States Currency—Bechtler Gold Coins—Testing Bechtler Coins—Buncombe Treasurer in Confederate days issued State Paper Money for one Dollar and less, and during same time Asheville issued paper money for less than dollar—Exchange of Country Produce for Goods, barter, "taking out in trade"—Asheville Market House—Asheville Stores, General Stores—City Hall—Asheville's First Bury in-ground at corner of Eagle and Market Streets

—Next between Aston Street and Church Street Presbyterian Church—Next South of Central Methodist Church—Riverside Cemetery—John Lyon's tombstone oldest in Asheville and in Riverside Cemetery—John Lyon—Shawano

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Indians burying-ground oldest in Buncombe—Robert Patton burying-ground oldest for whites—Newton Academy burying-ground—Indian Graves on Patton Avenue—Tradition about location of County-town of Buncombe County—Bar-room Story

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Chapter XIV

First Preachers—George Newton—Swanino Circuit, Samuel Edney, Samuel Lowe —J. S. Burnett, first Station Methodist preacher—Jarvis Buxton, first Episcopalian preacher—Thomas Stradley, first regular Baptist preacher—Mrs. William Coleman, first member of Episcopal Church—Jarvis Buxton—R. B. Vance, first physician—P. C. Lester conducted first drug-store in Asheville— First Photograph Gallery in Asheville—James M. Alexander, first hotel-keeper—First Asheville Hitching-lot—Second Hitching-lot—Later Hitching-lots—Second hotel, Eagle Hotel—James Patton—Buck Hotel, James M. Smith—Israel Baird's Hotel—Carolina House, John Reynolds—Battery Park Hotel—Frank Coxe—Asheville all-the-year Resort—Langren Hotel—Grove Park Inn — Invalids — Gatchells — Gleitzman's Sanatorium — Confederate Hospital—Mission Hospital—Attempt to prevent last—State v. Tenant— Waterworks—Public Wells—Private Wells and Springs—Changes in Physical features—Famous Asheville Springs—Bogs in Lexington Avenue and Central Avenue—Old Chestnut Tree near Beaucatcher Gap—E. H. Cunningham— Waterworks before the War—Hosea Lindsey—Captain Thomas W. Patton— First Waterworks — Pumping-Station — Montraville Patton's Mill — "Old Reservoir"—Standpipe—North Fork of Swannanoa—Filter Station—"New Reservoir"—Bee Tree Line—Fire Department—Hook and Ladder Companies—Sewers—Asheville's Altitude—Public Square—City on hills—Freshets of 1791, 1845, 1852, 1876, 1916—Freshet of 1852 carried away on French Broad bridges at Captain Wiley Jones, Smith's Bridge, Garmon's Bridge, Alexander's Bridge, Chunn's Bridge, Warm Springs; and on Swannanoa Colonel Patton's Bridge—Freshet of 1810 or 1811—Freshet on July 16, 1916, flooded lower streets in Asheville and Biltmore and drowned men in both places, destroyed property, and injured bridges—Patton Avenue—Patton Street—E. Clay ton— First Planing-Mill—Wofford College—Newton Academy—John Dickson School-house—Lowndes or Everett or Ward houses—Confederate guns— R. W. Pulliam—G. W. Whitson—Buncombe County's Centennial

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Chapter XV - Asheville Streets, Library, Books

Names of Asheville Streets—P. Rollins, and F. M. Miller, Aldermen, and Colonel R. W. Pulliam, Captain Thomas W. Patton, and Captain William M. Cocke, Jr., Committee, name streets—Changes in street names, Academy Street and Montford Avenue, Mulberry Street and Cumberland Avenue, Starnes Street and and Hiawassee Street , North Main Street and Broadway, Beaver-dam Street and Merrimon Avenue, Libbey Street and Liberty Street, Bridge Street and Central Avenue, White Oak Street and Oak Street, Pine Street and Furman Avenue, South Main Street and Biltmore Avenue, Bailey Street and Asheland Avenue, Maria Avenue and French Broad Avenue, Roberts Street and Bartlett Street, Buxton Street and Park Avenue, Public Square and Pack Square—Asheville Public Library—Principal books on early Western North Carolina—Francis Asbury's Journals, Charles Lanman's Letters from the Alleghany Mountains, Bennett's Chronology of North Carolina, Colton's Mountain Scenery, Land of the Sky by Christian Reid, Cling-

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man's Writings and Speeches, Zeigler and Grosscup's Heart of the Alleghanies, Standard Guide to Asheville and Western North Carolina, Arthur's Western North Carolina—Eoneguski—Myths of the Cherokee—M. A. Curtis's Trees and Shrubs of North Carolina—G. F. Kunz's History of Gems Found in North Carolina—"Land of the Sky"

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Hon. Theodore F. Davidson
The Citizen Company


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