of Purchase of Eastern National Forests
Special Collections Walter Julius Damtoft
slope tand, oak and chestnut. Nantahala Purchase Ares, [Plate
|Title||Progress of Purchase of Eastern National Forests, Under Act of March 1, 1911 (Weeks Law)|
|Alt. Title||Progress of Purchase of Eastern National Forests|
|Creator||National Forest Reservation Commission|
|Subject Keyword||National Forest Reservation Commission ; Weeks Law ; John Walter Smith, U.S. Senator ; Peter G. Gerry, U.S. Senator ; Willis C. Hawley, U.S. Congress ; Gordon Lee, U.S. Congress ; Western North Carolina ; forests ; forestry ; forest management ; White Mountains, Vermont ; Southern Appalachian region ; maps ; Monongahela forest ; Potomac forest ; Massanutten forest ; Shenandoah forest ; Natural Bridge forest ; White Top forest ; Unka forest ; Boone forest ; Mt. Mitchell forest ; Pisgah forest ; Savannah forest ; Georgia forests ; Cherokee forest ; Nantahala forest ; Alabama forests ; Arkansas and Ozark forests ; forest reserves ;|
|Subject LCSH||Weeks law
Weeks, John W. (John Wingate), 1860-1926.
Forest reserves -- United States.
Forests and forestry--North Carolina
Forests and forestry--United States
Forest Policy--United States
Old growth forests--North Carolina
Pisgah National Forest (N.C.)
United States. Dept. of Agriculture
United States. Forest Service. Southern Region.
|Publisher||U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.|
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Bureau of Forestry
|Type||Source type: text ; image|
|Format||[digital] image/jpeg/text ; [booklet] ; 23 p. ; 9.25" x 11.75"|
|Source||Walter J. Damtoft Collection, M2011.06.03, D.H. Ramsey Library, Special Collections|
|Relation||Is part of: Walter Julius Damtoft Collection, M2011.06.01-03 ;|
|Coverage spatial||Vermont ; Maryland ; Virginia ; Tennessee ; North Carolina ; western North Carolina|
|Rights||Any display, publication or public use must credit D. H. Ramsey Library, Special Collections, University of North Carolina at Asheville. Copyright retained by the authors of certain items in the collection, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law.|
|Donor||Walter Julius Damtoft|
|Description||A small government printing office booklet describing the Eastern National Forests proposed for purchase by the National Forest Reservation Commission comprised of the Secretary of War, the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, two Members of the Senate, and two Members of the House of Representatives in 1920. The Commission put aside money to purchase all lands acquired under the mandate of what later became known as the "Weeks Act," so-called for John W. Weeks the U.S. Senator and Secretary of War who pushed the passage of the law through and that established funds for the purchase of eastern national forests. The Weeks Act purchases were restricted to "such lands as are so located, as determined by the Geological Survey, as to be influential in promoting the navigability of navigable streams by protecting their headwaters." . This booklet describes the lands under consideration for purchase and includes maps of the forest purchase areas.|
|Citation||Progress of Purchase of Eastern National Forests Under Act of March 1, 1911 (The Weeks Law), D. H. Ramsey Library Special Collections, University of North Carolina Asheville|
|Processed by||Special Collections staff, 2011 hw|
|Historical Context||The provisions of the Weeks Act were essentially a mandate to purchase lands located in the head-waters of rough mountainous areas of the eastern Appalachian mountain range. It was estimated that eastern forests contained some one-fifth of the timber supply of the country in the eastern forest. Until the passage of the Weeks Law most all the public forest systems were located in the United States, west of the Mississippi. The nine states included in the Weeks law purchases included 21 purchase areas detailed in this booklet, of which 17 were authorized by the National Forest Reservation Commission. The combined acreage to be purchased included some 7,000,000 acres. 1,841,934 acres was purchased under the Weeks Act for an average price of $5.26. This acreage is only part of the 30,000,000 acres of land the Commission identified as unsuited for agricultural purposes and that should be maintained for the purposes of forest management and . The forest management was intended to address a growing shortage of lumber for building and for the production of paper. Eastern spruce, used in paper production was nearing exhaustion and dramatic measures were needed to meet the threat of depletion of resources.|
|cover||Progress of Purchase of Eastern National Forests
Government Printing Office
|PLATEN II - Hardwood stand. Yellow poplar, chestnut, and oak, on purchased land -- characteristic o virgin and culled forests being acquired in Southern Appalachians.||
PROGRESS OF PURCHASE OF EASTERN NATIONAL FORESTS
Under Act of March 1, 1911 (The Weeks Law).
SHORTAGE OF EASTERN TIMBER.
The Eastern States are confronted with a serious shortage of lumber for building purposes, and of wood for making paper. As a result of injudicious methods of cutting and the ravages of fire, privately owned forest lands, after having been lumbered, have declined in productivity, and some tracts have ceased altogether to yield returns. The supply of eastern spruce available for paper stock is nearly exhausted, eastern building material is no longer adequate fully to meet industrial demands, and the future supply of hardwoods is threatened and will not be sufficient unless prompt measures are taken for maintaining the productivity of the hardwood forests.
THE WEEKS LAW.
The act of March 1, 1911 (the Weeks law), which was designed primarily for affording protection to the headwaters of navigable streams, seeks its results through the maintenance of forests. It thus offers a means of furthering measures for maintaining a supply of eastern timber. Under its provisions 1,841,934 acres of spruce and hardwood forest in the Eastern States have been or are now in process of being acquired out of a total of more than 50,000,000 acres of this class of timber-land upon which eastern industries have been dependent for supply.
This act established the National Forest Reservation Commission, consisting of the Secretary of War, the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, two Members of the Senate, and two Members of the House of Representatives. The commission authorizes the purchase of all lands being acquired under the act. Purchases are restricted to such lands as are so located, as determined by the Geological Survey, as to be influential in promoting the navigability of navigable streams by protecting their headwaters. This restriction has practically required that purchases be limited to rough lands located in the mountainous sections of the country.
 Report, Secretary Southern Pine Association, January, 1919.
*"Committee American Paper arid Pulp Association, November, 1919. 157776—20 3
PURCHASE OF EASTERN NATIONAL FORESTS.
APPROPRIATIONS WHICH HAVE BEEN MADE.
The original Weeks bill carried an appropriation of $11,000,000, covering several years, of which $3,000,000 was for the fiscal years 1910 and 1911, but it was possible to expend economically only $17,000 of this appropriation for these years, leaving slightly more than $8,000,000 available. To this, by the agricultural appropriation bill of 1916, was added $3,000,000, being a reappropriation of the moneys that had lapsed; and, by the agricultural appropriation bill for the fiscal year 1920, there was a further appropriation of $600,000. The commission has authorized the expenditure of approximately all but $300,000 of these appropriations.
ADDITIONAL APPROPRIATION NEEDED.
The National Forest Reservation Commission has now gone on record in favor of a further appropriation for purchases to be used both in the solidification of established areas and in the location of new areas. As a result of this action of the commission, the Secretary of the Treasury has transmitted to the Speaker of the House (H. Doc. 321, 66th Cong., 2d sess.) a letter from Hon. Newton D. Raker, president of the commission, submitting an estimate for an appropriation needed for the acquisition of additional lands at the headwaters of navigable streams under the provisions of the act of March 1, 1911 (36 Stat., 961), known as the Weeks law. This communication has been referred to the Committee on Agriculture. The needed appropriation covers a period of five years, beginning with the fiscal year 1921, at a rate of $2,000,000 per year. Rills have already been introduced in both the Senate and the House of Representatives authorizing the recommended appropriation.
FORESTS GOOD INVESTMENTS.
The 1,841,9,34 acres which have been or are being acquired are being purchased at an average price of $5.26 an acre. It is believed that purchases have been judiciously made and that, since the merchantable timber has very greatly increased in value, they are now worth much more than the amounts paid for them. In addition to their protective function, these lands are already demonstrating that financially they will be an excellent investment. There seems to be a widespread opinion that the Government is acquiring very largely cut-over or unproductive lands. This is by no means the case, as is indicated by the income from the Forests. Many of the purchases, however, are lands which through neglect by prior owners have been burned and their earning capacity greatly reduced, or they are cut-over lands or lands in young timber which can yield no immediate returns, though all
|map 1||White Mountain Region (Also Green Mountain Region - Vermont)|
PURCHASE OF EASTERN NATIONAL FORESTS.
lands so classed have productive capacity. The cutting of timber by the Government on the acquired lands is extremely conservative, less timber being sold each year than the estimated annual replacement by growth. In spite of these conditions, the receipts for the fiscal year 1919 on the then acquired area of 1,347,660 acres amounted to $71,942.
NECESSITY FOR EASTERN NATIONAL FORESTS.
Increase in population and expansion of industry have been confronted with a constantly decreasing acreage of timberland from which to draw lumber, wood for paper manufacture, tanning materials, and other uses. As a means of meeting this constant demand the National Forests were created from the public domain. The purpose of the National Forests was, by regulating cutting and by the protection from fire of forest lands, especially when cut over, to assure timber for future industrial use. These forests, however, contain only about one-fifth of the timber supply of the country. Furthermore, except for small and relatively unimportant areas in Florida and Michigan, the entire forest system created from the public domain is located west of the Mississippi River. There was at the time of the establishment of the National Forests no adequate provision for maintaining the timber supply of the Eastern States. The eastern supply of hardwoods is of special importance since the timber of this class is practically limited to the Eastern States and to restricted areas within these States. Discussion covering a number of years and looking particularly to measures for maintaining a supply of hardwood timber for American industries eventually culminated in the Weeks law.
BENEFITS FROM EASTERN PURCHASED FORESTS.
The Weeks law, for constitutional reasons, limits purchases to lands which promote navigability of navigable streams. Rut the benefits to navigation through the maintenance of an equable stream flow by the conservation of the precipitation on the watersheds and through reducing deposits of silt in channels are not the sole advantages to be derived. As a provision for the maintenance of a supply of hardwoods and of spruce for pulp and for airplane construction the measure is of prime importance.
The tendency of the forest cover, when kept in good condition, to promote absorption of heavy rainfall renders the maintenance of woodland an essential consideration in any project seeking to mitigate floods and to reduce flood losses on streams which head at high altitudes in the eastern mountains. At the same time there is ah accompanying benefit to water-power development in lessening sedimentation, which lowers the storage capacity of reservoirs, as well as in equalizing stream flowage, especially in increasing the dry season flow.
A collateral advantage is that enjoyed by such towns as secure their supply of domestic water from watersheds in whole or in part owned by the Government and lying within the forests. ' There are 17 municipalities, including 4 large hotels, which now make use of this privilege, while 29 municipalities and 5 hotels secure their supply from lands which have not been acquired but which are located within the purchase areas. Government control assures the sanitation of such watersheds without interfering with the use of the land for timber producing purposes.
A further function which can not be measured from a purely monetary standpoint is the use of the forests for recreational purposes. Rendered accessible by means of roads and bypaths they become public playgrounds. Also certain restricted areas have already been designated as game preserves for the breeding of wild life, uses which in no way detract from their essential economic service.
STATUS OF PURCHASE PROGRAM.
There have been located under the Weeks law in nine States in the very important hardwood and spruce regions of the Appalachians and White Mountains 21 purchase areas, on 17 of which purchases have been authorized by the National Forest Reservation Commission. These purchase areas have an area of nearly 7,000,000 acres, including some interior farming land. Since the purchase program was developed, other States, including Kentucky, in which conditions seem to meet the requirements of the law, have enacted legislation authorizing the acquisition of lands for National Forest purposes. A further appropriation of the kind which has been recommended, covering a period of years, would be expended primarily in acquiring lands on areas which have already been located so as to secure consolidation and more efficient administration, and with the further object of extending the policy to new units located particularly in States in which no purchase areas have as yet been established. The total area of hardwood and spruce lands in the mountains of the Eastern States which is unsuited for agricultural purposes and which should be maintained in productive forests is in excess of 30,000,000 acres.
Southern Appalachian Region. Non - Agricultural Lands
Areas in which Lands for National Forests are being acquired.
|PLATE III - Cut-over and unburned hardwood forest, on purchased land -- typical of lands of this class being acquired in Southern Appalachians.||
|Plate IV||PLATE IV - Typical un-lumbered spruce on forest land.||
|PLATE V - Characteristic cut-over spruce forest -
unburned, on purchased land.
|Plate VI, Typical upper slope stand,
oak and chestnut. Nantahala Purchase Area,
|map 3||White Mountain Purchase Area|
WHITE MOUNTAIN PURCHASE AREA.
The purchase program in the White Mountains is about one-half completed, there having been approved for purchase 414,362 acres out of a total designated area of 950,114. The White Mountains are the source of the headwaters of the Androscoggin and Merrimac Rivers and of the important tributaries of the Connecticut. The Merrimac is noteworthy on account of the large development of water power upon it. The Presidential Range, embracing the highest points in the northeastern States, lies within this area; and all the high peaks, excepting the very-summit of Mount Washington (altitude, 6,290 feet), are owned by the Government.
The purchase program on this area looks forward to the acquisition of interior holdings with a view to solidifying the Government's lands as rapidly as lands are offered by owners at reasonable prices, and negotiations are now in progress for securing the high slopes on certain tracts before it may be possible to acquire all of each tract. Among the lands which have been approved for purchase are 270,000 acres of virgin and culled forest extremely valuable as a source of spruce for paper pulp.
MONONGAHELA PURCHASE AREA.
On the Monongahela purchase area 59,499 acres, very largely of cut-over lands have been approved for purchase out of 682,316 acres lying within its limits. While there are several cleared valleys the acquisition of which is not very desirable, at least 200,000 acres lying especially east and south of lands the purchase of which has already been approved should be acquired not only for the benefits of watershed protection but so as to round out the administrative unit'. Cutting on these lands, which were very heavily timbered, has only recently been completed, so that they have become available for consideration. A large portion of the lands which have been approved for purchase bore forests of spruce, which was largely marketed for paper-pulp stock. Such lands are potential spruce lands, and in cases where they have not been burned are restocking naturally in spruce; but the burned lands will require planting to reestablish this valuable tree.
This purchase area is located on the headwaters of the Monongahela River, a stream which has received the benefit of very large Federal appropriations for its improvement. It is a tributary of the Ohio River and. contributes largely to the floods in the Ohio and the resulting property loss in Pittsburgh and other river cities.
|map 4||Monongahela Purchase Area|
|map 5||Potomac Purchase Area|
POTOMAC PURCHASE AREA.
There have been approved for purchase on the Potomac area 83,344 acres out of a total of 146,038 acres. The remaining forest land within this area, which is chiefly on rough mountain slopes, is largely held in small parcels and can be secured advantageously only from time to time as the owners desire to dispose of it. In addition to the forest lands there are a number of small farms, located in the narrow parallel valleys, the acquisition of which would not be desirable.
A considerable proportion of the land being acquired on this area is well timbered, and none of it has been so badly burned as to impair seriously its producing capacity. The forests are largely of oak, a great deal being chestnut oak, the bark of which is one of the important sources of tannin.
MASSANUTTEN PURCHASE AREA.
On the Massanutten purchase area there have been approved for purchase 63,537 acres out of a total of 152,946 acres. In addition to a number of small tracts of woodland which adjoin lands already approved for purchase and most of which should be acquired, there still remains one large tract of rough land at the southern end of the Massanutten Mountain which would largely fill in this portion
The forests on this area consist mostly of young timber, much of which is oak; and while the rate of growth is slow on account of the prevailing shallow and extremely stony soils, nearly all of the land is capable of producing stands of merchantable saw timber.
The highest point on the Massanutten Mountain is the peak, which is about 3,000 feet in altitude.
|map 6||Massanutten Purchase Area|
|map 7||Shenandoah Purchase Area|
SHENANDOAH PURCHASE AREA.
On the Shenandoah purchase area, out of a total of 378,921 acres there have been approved for purchase 187,979 acres located in the southern and- central portions of the area. There still remain several large tracts of rough land extending northward along the Shenandoah Mountain and eastward on Elliotts Knob which should be acquired. The forests consist largely of young oak and chestnut, but about 100,000 acres bear stands of merchantable timber.
The highest altitude is Elliotts Knob, 4,473 feet.
NATURAL BRIDGE PURCHASE AREA.
On the Natural Bridge purchase area 119,947 acres have been approved for purchase out of a total of 262,064 acres. In addition to a number of small farms the cleared land of which is chiefly located on steep slopes and subject to deterioration through erosion, there are several large tracts of very rough and comparatively light-timbered lands at the extreme northwestern end of the area which should be acquired. There are also heavily timbered lands along the northeastern edge of the area now being operated which should be acquired as soon as conditions permit.
The timber on this area consists largely of oak and chestnut, there being on the acquired lands some extremely valuable stands of mature timber as well as heavy stands of young timber which have great investment possibilities.
The highest points on this area are the Peaks of Otter, which reach altitudes of about 4,000 feet.
|map 8||Natural Bridge Purchase Area|
|map 9||White Top Purchase Area|
WHITE TOP PURCHASE AREA.
On the White Top purchase area 69,200 acres have been acquired out of a total of 274,253 acres. Stands of spruce constituted a large part of the original forests. Some of these lands have been badly binned and their earning capacity greatly reduced, but on the cut-over spruce lands which have not been burned this species is being reestablished naturally. Other portions of the area originally bore heavy stands of white pine, and there is a valuable restocking of this species as well as of oak and chestnut on the hardwood sites.
The highest altitudes on the White Top area are White Top and Mount Rogers, a peak in the Balsam Mountains, the altitudes of which are, respectively, 5,330 and 5,719 feet.
UNAKA PURCHASE AREA.
On the Unaka purchase area there have been approved for purchase 56,129 acres out of a total of 517,147 acres. As a rule the stands of timber before being cut are heavy and the cut-over lands have excellent producing capacity. The important timbers are white pine, hemlock, chestnut, oak, and yellow poplar. While it may not be desirable to acquire the heaviest stands on account of the high price at which they are held, the cut-over lands and the culled and lightly timbered lands, especially at the south end of the area, should be acquired as rapidly as they are offered.
The highest altitude is Bald Knob, 5,550 feet.
|map 10||Unaka Purchase Area|
|map 11||Boone Purchase Area|
BOONE PURCHASE AREA.
There have been approved for purchase on the Boone area 47,775 acres, which is about one-fifth of the 231,648 acres within the purchase area. While the greater portion of the land which is being acquired has been cut over, the cutting was not close, and there remains considerable small but merchantable timber on such lands as were not burned before purchase. The original forests were composed of heavy stands, largely of white pine, chestnut, yellow poplar, and oak.
The most important topographic feature on this area is Grandfather Mountain, at its northwestern corner, which rises to a height of 5,964 feet. The New River, one of the important tributaries of the Ohio River, has its source on the northern slope of this mountain.
MOUNT MITCHELL PURCHASE AREA.
On the Mount Mitchell purchase area 89,795 acres have been approved for purchase out of a total of 283,813 acres. The forests on this area consist of spruce, the stands of which are located at the higher altitudes; and hemlock, associated with hardwoods—the most important being chestnut, oaks, yellow poplar, basswood, birch, and maple—the stands of which are at lower altitudes. Some of the spruce land has been burned over, but it has not been so severely injured as to destroy the soil fertility or to prevent the establishment of a future forest. Most of the acquired lands bear heavy and valuable stands, chiefly of hemlock and hardwoods, but there are also small areas of spruce.
Several municipalities, notably the city of Asheville and the towns of Marion, Montreat, and Black Mountain, own within the purchase area the watersheds from which they secure their domestic supply of water, and are cooperating with the Government in the protection of their lands from fire. Mount Mitchell and the other peaks on the Black Mountains—the highest mountains in the Eastern-States— rise to a general altitude of more than 6,500 feet and occupy the center of the purchase area.
|map 12||Mt. Mitchell Purchase Area|
|map 13||Pisgah Purchase Area|
PISGAH PURCHASE AREA.
On the Pisgah purchase area 94,588 acres have been approved for purchase out of a total of 304,350 acres. These acquired lands occupy a nearly solid body on the eastern slope of Pisgah Ridge, the salient topographic feature of which is Mount Pisgah, rising to a height of 5,713 feet. Most of this land is being acquired subject to the rights of the owners of the timber to cut it, but under the cutting regulations a large amount of young timber will remain uncut and will pass to the Government. The stand, which is very largely made up of chestnut associated with oak and poplar, is an important source of supply for tannic-acid stock. Much of the land on the area remaining unacquired is spruce land, which is being cut over for stock for a near-bj' paper mill. The soil fertility of this spruce land can be seriously impaired by burning, and for this reason it should be acquired as soon as possible after the completion of cutting, so as to assure a replacement of the valuable spruce.
SAVANNAH PURCHASE AREA.
On the Savannah area 153,202 acres have been approved for purchase out of a total of 539,702 acres. This area is located partly on the headwaters of the Little Tennessee and the Savannah Rivers.
The stands of timber on the acquired lands are heavy, as a rule, the important species being chestnut, yellow pine, yellow poplar, and oak. The chestnut carries a high per cent of tannin and the stands of this species are valuable. Stands of white pine have been very largely removed, but there is excellent replacement.
At the eastern end of this area are a number of large and valuable tracts of timberland on which logging operations have not yet begun. These should be acquired with the timber rather than as cut-over holdings after the timber has been removed, for the operating value of the large amount of extremely valuable timber which the Government already owns on the acquired lands will be enhanced by the control of the remaining timber tributary to these logging units. Other large tracts could well be acquired as cut-over lands.
Within the boundaries of the area are the important water-power developments on the Tallulah and Chattooga Rivers, upper tributaries of the Savannah.
The highest point on the Savannah area is Whiteside Mountain, 4,908 feet.
|map 14||Savannah Purchase Area|
|map 15||Georgia Purchase Area|
GEORGIA PURCHASE AREA.
On the Georgia area there have been approved for purchase 70,698 acres out of a total of 337,272 acres.
This purchase area contains valuable unlumbered stands of mixed hardwoods. In addition to several thousand acres, largely in small holdings, which either adjoin lands in process of being acquired or form interior holdings, there are several large bodies of unlumbered timberland in the eastern and northern portions of the area which should be acquired with the timber or as soon as conditions of removal will permit.
The highest point on the area is Blood Mountain, rising to an altitude of 4,463 feet.
CHEROKEE PURCHASE AREA.
A total of 143,336 acres out of 326,173 acres have been approved for purchase on the Cherokee area. Most of the lands that have not yet been considered are on the rough western flanks of the Unaka Mountains. Some of the steepest slopes to be found in the Appalachians occur on these lands and purchase should be extended to include them as soon as the cutting of timber is completed.
This purchased area is located entirely on the waters of the Tennessee River.
|map 16||Cherokee Purchase Area|
|map 17||Nantahala Purchase Area|
NANTAHALA PURCHASE AREA.
On the Nantahala purchase area 87,907 acres, including 11,369 acres transferred from the Treasury Department, have been approved for purchase out of a total of 497,011 acres. The lands approved for purchase are largely in Macon County, N. C., and occupy the greater portion of both slopes of the Nantahala Mountains, which rise to heights of about 5,500 feet. The lands transferred from the Treasury Department are located in Graham and Clay Counties, N. C., and consist of some 30 parcels, most of which are well timbered and valuable, as is the case with the surrounding privately owned land. It seems desirable that the Government should acquire the surrounding lands before they are lumbered, since they would form a most valuable reserve of hardwood timber in connection with the interlocking Government holdings.
The stands of timber on the acquired lands are heavy and very largely composed of hemlock, chestnut, oak, and yellow poplar.
Important water-power projects are located at the extreme northern end of this area on the Little Tennessee River, many of the tributaries of which are fed by streams which head on this and the Savannah areas. One development necessitates a dam across the Tennessee River more than 200 feet in height, but it is understood that the storage capacity of the reservoir so created has been reduced 10 per cent during the past five years by sedimentation resulting from erosion of soil from the mountain slopes.
ALABAMA PURCHASE AREA.
Out of a total of 196,520 acres on the Alabama area there have been approved for purchase 51,133 acres, in which are. included not however, 13,657 acres of public domain, the administration of which had been transferred to the Forest Service.
The forests on this area consist largely of pine on the upper slopes and extremely valuable stands of white oak and poplar in the hollows.
The greater portion of the land in process of being acquired is heavily wooded. Except certain small sections adapted to farming, the remaining land within the area, which is very largely in small holdings, should be secured as rapidly as possible.
The greater portion of this area is located on the drainage of the Black Warrior River, on which large expenditures have been made to promote navigation.
|map 18||Alabama Purchase Area|
ARKANSAS AND OZARK PURCHASE AREAS.
On the Arkansas and Ozark areas, which consist of the National Forests of these names, there have been approved for purchase 27,812 acres, all of which constitute interior holdings seriously interfering with administration, especially grazing and protection against fire.
In addition to a number of small holdings, most of them containing no cleared land or at most only sufficient to establish a homestead claim, there are large areas lying within the limits of each of these forests which should be acquired. These are chiefly held by railroad and lumber companies and consist in many cases of sections which alternate with those of the National Forests. Such of these lands as can be secured with the timber will add materially to the value of the timber owned by the Government on the alternating sections by permitting the sale of timber on logical logging units when the necessity for development arises. These lands bear much valuable white oak and yellow pine.
|NATIONAL FOREST RESERVATION COMMISSION
The Secretary of War,